The metabolism of deltamethrin (DLM), cis-permethrin (CPM) and trans-permethrin (TPM) was studied in liver microsomes, liver cytosol and plasma from male Sprague–Dawley rats aged 15, 21 and 90 days and from adult humans. DLM and CPM were metabolised by rat hepatic microsomal cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes and to a lesser extent by microsomal and cytosolic carboxylesterase (CES) enzymes, whereas TPM was metabolised to a greater extent by CES enzymes. In human liver, DLM and TPM were mainly metabolised by CES enzymes, whereas CPM was metabolised by CYP and CES enzymes. The metabolism of pyrethroids by cytosolic CES enzymes contributes to the overall hepatic clearance of these compounds. DLM, CPM and TPM were metabolised by rat, but not human, plasma CES enzymes. This study demonstrates that the ability of male rats to metabolise DLM, CPM and TPM by hepatic CYP and CES enzymes and plasma CES enzymes increases with age. In all instances, apparent intrinsic clearance values were lower in 15 than in 90 day old rats. As pyrethroid-induced neurotoxicity is due to the parent compound, these results suggest that DLM, CPM and TPM may be more neurotoxic to juvenile than to adult rats.
- liver cytosol
- liver microsomes