Microanalysis of hybrid characterization of PLA/cHA polymer scaffolds for bone regeneration

Bankole I. Oladapo, Ilesanmi A. Daniyan, Omolayo M. Ikumapayi, Olaoluwa B. Malachi, Idowu O. Malachi

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55 Citations (Scopus)
25 Downloads (Pure)


Tissue engineering uses some engineering strategies for the reconstruction and repair of the compromised tissues, among which the use of biomaterials as an alternative to conventional transplants is significant. However, not many research has been developed on the use of biopolymer nanostructure microanalysis and calcium phosphate composites of carbon apatite in PLA as scaffolds for tissue regeneration. In this work, poly (lactic acid) filaments with 5% and 20%, carbon apatite (cHA) were microanalysis to produce a 3D printing scaffold. The scaffolds were characterised by the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray (EDX) techniques, thereby making it possible to notice a good load dispersion. The microstructural analysis of the scaffolds was carried out by computerised micro-tomography to determine the roughness, morphological parameters of pore size distribution, porosity, as well as better visualisation of the distribution of particles. A computational in vitro and microanalysis tests to assess the biocompatibility viability of the PLA/cHA structure with a variation of scaffold geometry to evaluate their effects on morphological, physicochemical and mechanical properties were also carried out. The characterisation of Ca and P release assays were observed for longer incubation times and the dynamic condition control to simulate the stresses suffered by the biomaterial exerted by the flow of fluids was achieved. The results obtained indicated that the micrographs of the cross-sections of the scaffolds showed a flatness in the loaded material when compared to the 100/0 PLA. Furthermore, the apparent porosity of 5% and 20% of cHA scaffolds gave a porosity percentage of approximately 62% and 41% respectively. The reduced summit height, reduced valley depth and the percentage upper and lower bearing area difference of the samples are 16.33 nm, 9.62 nm and 75.07% respectively. The morphological characterisation surface roughness analysis and tolerance insertion gave a favourable reduced porosity result for the composite scaffolds with 5% of cHA. Hence, this work will assist biomaterial industries in the development of biomaterials which have been engineered with biological systems to meet medical purposes.

Original languageEnglish
Article number106341
Number of pages10
JournalPolymer Testing
Early online date7 Jan 2020
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2020


  • 3D printing
  • Biocomposite
  • Bone regeneration. PLA/cHA
  • Microanalysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Polymers and Plastics
  • Organic Chemistry


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