Background: Miniscrews in orthodontics have been mainly used for anchorage without patient compliance in orthodontic treatment. The literature has reported changing failure rates.
Objective: The aim of this review was to provide a precise estimation of miniscrew failure rate and the possible risk factors of the mechanically-retained miniscrews.
Search method: Electronic search in database was undertaken up to July 2017 through the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, MEDLINE, Scopus, and Ovid. Additional searching for on-going and unpublished data, hand search of relevant journals and grey lietraure were also undertaken, authors were contacted, and reference lists screened.
Eligibility criteria: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and prospective cohort studies (PCSs), published in English were obtained, which reported the failure rate of miniscrews, as orthodontic anchorage, with less than 2 mm diameter.
Data collection and analysis: Blind and induplicate study selection, data extraction, and risk of bias assessment were undertaken in this research. Failure rates and relevant risk factors of miniscrews with the corresponding 95 per cent confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by using the random-effects model. The heterogeneity across the studies was assessed using the I2 and Chi2 test. The risk of bias was assessed using Cochrane risk of bias and Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses were performed in order to test the robustness of the results in meta-analysis.
Results: The 16 RCTs and 30 PCSs were included in this research. Five studies were not included in the meta-analysis due to a lack of the statistical information needed to compute the effect sizes. About 3250 miniscrews from 41 studies were pooled in a random-effect model. The overall failure rate of miniscrews was 13.5 per cent (95% CI 11.5-15.9). Subgroup analysis showed that miniscrews 'diameter, length and design, patient age, and jaw of insertion had minimal effect on rate of miniscrews failure while the type of the gingivae and smoking had statistically significant effect.
Conclusion: Miniscrews have an acceptably low failure rate. The findings should be interpreted with caution due to high-level of heterogeneity and unbalanced groups in the included studies. High quality randomized clinical trial with large sample sizes are required to support the findings of this review.