Models and empirical data for the production of referring expressions

Albert Gatt, Emiel Krahmer, Kees van Deemter, Roger P G van Gompel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Citations (Scopus)


This paper introduces a special issue of Language, Cognition and Neuroscience dedicated to Production of Referring Expressions: Models and Empirical Data, focusing on models of reference production that make empirically testable predictions, as well as on empirical work that can inform the design of such models. In addition to introducing the volume, this paper also gives an overview of recent experimental and modelling work, focusing on two principal aspects of reference production, namely, choice of anaphoric referential expression and choice of semantic content for referential noun phrases. It also addresses the distinction between dialogue and non-dialogue settings, focussing especially on the impact of a dialogue setting on referential choice and the evidence for audience design in the choices speakers make.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)899-911
Number of pages13
JournalLanguage, Cognition and Neuroscience
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 2014


  • Computational modelling
  • Language production
  • Referring expressions

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Language and Linguistics
  • Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
  • Linguistics and Language
  • Cognitive Neuroscience


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