Ultrastructural studies have underpinned the cell biological and clinical investigations of the varied roles of motile cilia in health and disease, with a long history since the 1950s. Recent developments from transmission electron microscopy (TEM; cryo-electron microscopy, electron tomography) have yielded higher resolution and fresh insights into the structure and function of these complex organelles. Microscopy in ciliated organisms, disease models, and in patients with ciliopathy diseases has dramatically expanded our understanding of the ubiquity, multisystem involvement, and importance of cilia in normal human development. Here, we review the importance of motile cilia ultrastructural studies in understanding the basis of diseases other than primary ciliary dyskinesia.
- Transmission electron microscopy
- Ciliopathy disease
- Motile cilia