Motile cilia defects in diseases other than primary ciliary dyskinesia: The contemporary diagnostic and research role for transmission electron microscopy

Hannah M. Mitchison (Lead / Corresponding author), Amelia Shoemark

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

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Ultrastructural studies have underpinned the cell biological and clinical investigations of the varied roles of motile cilia in health and disease, with a long history since the 1950s. Recent developments from transmission electron microscopy (TEM; cryo-electron microscopy, electron tomography) have yielded higher resolution and fresh insights into the structure and function of these complex organelles. Microscopy in ciliated organisms, disease models, and in patients with ciliopathy diseases has dramatically expanded our understanding of the ubiquity, multisystem involvement, and importance of cilia in normal human development. Here, we review the importance of motile cilia ultrastructural studies in understanding the basis of diseases other than primary ciliary dyskinesia.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)415-427
Number of pages13
JournalUltrastructural Pathology
Issue number6
Early online date19 Sep 2017
Publication statusPublished - 2017



  • Transmission electron microscopy
  • Ciliopathy disease
  • Non-respiratory
  • Motile cilia

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