Multicriteria evaluation of the quality of service of informal public transport: An empirical evidence from Ibadan, Nigeria

Adebola Olowesegun (Lead / Corresponding author), Dumiso Moyo, Deepak Gopinath

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)
189 Downloads (Pure)


Developing countries experience a decline in bus public transport investments. Yet informal public transport has continued to grow rapidly. Previous studies have evaluated the Quality of Service (QoS) provided by such informal transport but a multi-criteria evaluation that considers various stakeholders in the Global South is missing. A case study was carried out in three local government areas in Ibadan, the third largest city in Nigeria, with a focus on identifying criteria to develop an evaluation model for QoS. Information on user perceptions of the identified QoS criteria was collected through the administration of questionnaires onboard and offboard, using stratified system random sampling. Weights of the variables for the determination of the QoS of the IPT were determined from stakeholder focus groups. Weights were assigned to each of the observed variables of the set criteria, which serve as indicators for the assessment of the quality of service. The multi-criteria included accessibility, affordability travel, waiting time, travel time, seat comfort, transport fares, safety, and the drivers’ attitude. Findings from the application of the multi criteria evaluation model indicate an all-round low quality of service to all criteria applied. In particular, the study observes a low accessibility of informal transport service in Ibadan compared to other similar studies. The poor service quality experienced make the transport cost considerably unaffordable (value for money) given low quality in-bus comfort due to poor seats and crowding at terminals and in bus, low safety standards due to road unworthy buses, long travel time due to delays at loading terminals and undesignated frequent in passenger pick and drop points, and experiences of aggressive and reckless drivers. This paper advances new understanding in two arenas: firstly, that informal public transport has positive contribution to the Nigerian economy in general but needs policy support for strengthening its resilience; secondly, a new methodology, the multi-criteria evaluation model that was developed in this paper has potential for transferability in the evaluation of the quality of service of IPT. This is because the model although showed that QoS of IPT in the case study area of Ibadan is low however has demonstrated its ability to integrate range of criteria that are context-specific, for assessing the QoS of public transport.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1518-1530
Number of pages13
JournalCase Studies on Transport Policy
Issue number4
Early online date4 Sept 2021
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2021


  • Multicriteria
  • Perceptions
  • Quality of Service
  • Informal Public Transport

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Transportation
  • Urban Studies


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