Multiple environmental designations: a case study of their effectiveness for the Ythan Estuary

A. Ross, A. Stockdale

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    2 Citations (Scopus)


    High-value landscapes, habitats, and species are protected increasingly through a range of local, national, and international designations and policies. Often one site may be protected by a multitude of designations. However, international designations are commonly implemented through national mechanisms. Using the Forvie Sands and Ythan Estuary area of northeast Scotland as an example, we review the effectiveness of multiple environmental designations. After an examination of existing and proposed designations for the study area, overlaps and loopholes in environmental protection are identified. We conclude that protection from more than one designation may either afford the site additional protection or emphasise the importance of the site at different levels; local, national, and international. The principal loophole relates to unregulated activities undertaken beyond the designated site which may have an adverse effect on the protected area. Possible solutions include extending the designation to include the sources of the threat or to combine an appropriate designation strategy with effective regulation of the threat itself. In developing designation strategies, environmental protection agencies should consider these options.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)89-100
    Number of pages12
    JournalEnvironment and Planning C: Government and Policy
    Issue number1
    Publication statusPublished - Feb 1996


    Dive into the research topics of 'Multiple environmental designations: a case study of their effectiveness for the Ythan Estuary'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

    Cite this