High-value landscapes, habitats, and species are protected increasingly through a range of local, national, and international designations and policies. Often one site may be protected by a multitude of designations. However, international designations are commonly implemented through national mechanisms. Using the Forvie Sands and Ythan Estuary area of northeast Scotland as an example, we review the effectiveness of multiple environmental designations. After an examination of existing and proposed designations for the study area, overlaps and loopholes in environmental protection are identified. We conclude that protection from more than one designation may either afford the site additional protection or emphasise the importance of the site at different levels; local, national, and international. The principal loophole relates to unregulated activities undertaken beyond the designated site which may have an adverse effect on the protected area. Possible solutions include extending the designation to include the sources of the threat or to combine an appropriate designation strategy with effective regulation of the threat itself. In developing designation strategies, environmental protection agencies should consider these options.
|Number of pages||12|
|Journal||Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy|
|Publication status||Published - Feb 1996|