Palmitoylation, more correctly known as S-acylation, aids in the regulation of cellular functions including stress response, disease resistance, hormone signalling, cell polarisation, cell expansion and cytoskeletal organization. S-acylation is the reversible addition of fatty acids to proteins, which increases their membrane affinity. Membrane-protein interactions are important for signalling complex formation and signal propagation, protein sequestration and segregation, protein stability, and maintaining polarity within the cell. S-acylation is a dynamic modification that modulates the activity and membrane association of many signalling molecules, including ROP GTPases, heterotrimeric G-proteins and calcium-sensing kinases. Recent advances in methods to study S-acylation are permitting an in-depth examination of its function in plants.