Cancer is a complex, multiscale process involving interactions at intracellular, intercellular and tissue scales that are in turn susceptible to microenvironmental changes. Each individual cancer cell within a cancer cell mass is unique, with its own internal cellular pathways and biochemical interactions. These interactions contribute to the functional changes at the cellular and tissue scale, creating a heterogenous cancer cell population. Anticancer drugs are effective in controlling cancer growth by inflicting damage to various target molecules and thereby triggering multiple cellular and intracellular pathways, leading to cell death or cell-cycle arrest. One of the major impediments in the chemotherapy treatment of cancer is drug resistance driven by multiple mechanisms, including multi-drug and cell-cycle mediated resistance to chemotherapy drugs. In this article, we discuss two hybrid multiscale modelling approaches, incorporating multiple interactions involved in the sub-cellular, cellular and microenvironmental levels to study the effects of cell-cycle, phase-specific chemotherapy on the growth and progression of cancer cells.
- Cell-cycle pathway
- Multiscale modelling