Mutational analysis of human papillomavirus E4 proteins: identification of structural features important in the formation of cytoplasmic E4/cytokeratin networks in epithelial cells

Sally Roberts (Lead / Corresponding author), Ian Ashmole, Loretta J. Gibson, Susan M. Rookes, Geoff J. Barton, Phillip H. Gallimore

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

54 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We have previously demonstrated that human papillomavirus type 1 (HPV 1) and 16 (HPV 16) E4 proteins form cytoplasmic filamentous networks which specifically colocalize with cytokeratin intermediate-filament (IF) networks when expressed in simian virus 40-transformed keratinocytes. The HPV 16 (but not the HPV 1) E4 protein induced the collapse of the cytokeratin networks. (S. Roberts, I. Ashmole, G. D. Johnson, J. W. Kreider, and P. H. Gallimore, Virology 197:176-187, 1993). The mode of interaction of E4 with the cytokeratin IFs is unknown. To identify E4 sequences important in mediating this interaction, we have constructed a large panel of mutant HPV (primarily HPV 1) E4 proteins and expressed them by using the same simian virus 40-epithelial expression system. Mutation of HPV 1 E4 residues 10 to 14 (LLGLL) abrogated the formation of cytoplasmic filamentous networks. This sequence corresponds to a conserved motif, LLXLL, found at the N terminus of other E4 proteins, and similar results were obtained on deletion of the HPV 16 motif, LLKLL (residues 12 to 16). Our findings indicate that this conserved motif is likely to play a central role in the association between E4 and the cytokeratins. An HPV 1 E4 mutant protein containing a deletion of residues 110 to 115 induced the collapse of the cytokeratin IFs in a manner analogous to the HPV 16 E4 protein. The sequence deleted, DLDDFC, is highly conserved between cutaneous E4 proteins. HPV 1 E4 residues 42 to 80, which are rich in charged amino acids, appeared to be important in the cytoplasmic localization of E4. In addition, we have mapped the N-terminal residues of HPV 1 E4 16-kDa and 10/11-kDa polypeptides expressed by using the baculovirus system and shown that they begin at tyrosine 16 and alanine 59, respectively. Similar-sized E4 proteins are also found in vivo. N-terminal deletion proteins, which closely resemble the 16-kDa and 10/11-kDa species, expressed in keratinocytes were both cytoplasmic and nuclear but did not form cytoplasmic filamentous networks. These findings support the postulate that N-terminal proteolytic processing of the E1-- E4 protein may modulate its function in vivo.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)6432-6445
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Virology
Volume68
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - Oct 1994

Keywords

  • Adult
  • Amino acid sequence
  • Animals
  • Base sequence
  • Cell Line
  • Cercopithecus aethiops
  • Cytoplasm
  • DNA mutational analysis
  • DNA primers
  • DNA, Viral
  • Epithelium
  • Gene deletion
  • Humans
  • Keratinocytes
  • Keratins
  • Kidney
  • Molecular sequence data
  • Mutagenesis
  • Oncogene proteins, Viral
  • Papillomaviridae
  • Polymerase chain reaction
  • Protein structure, Secondary
  • Sequence homology, Amino acid
  • Simian virus 40
  • Skin

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