Molecular manipulation of susceptibility (S) genes that are antipodes to resistance (R) genes has been adopted as an alternative strategy for controlling crop diseases. Here, we show the S gene encoding Triticum aestivum m6A methyltransferase B (TaMTB) is identified by a genome-wide association study and subsequently shown to be a positive regulator for wheat yellow mosaic virus (WYMV) infection. TaMTB is localized in the nucleus, is translocated into the cytoplasmic aggregates by binding to WYMV NIb to upregulate the m6A level of WYMV RNA1 and stabilize the viral RNA, thus promoting viral infection. A natural mutant allele TaMTB-SNP176C is found to confer an enhanced susceptibility to WYMV infection through genetic variation analysis on 243 wheat varieties. Our discovery highlights this allele can be a useful target for the molecular wheat breeding in the future.