Mesodermal and spinal cord progenitors originate from common founder cells from which they segregate during development. Moreover, neural and mesodermal tissues closely interact during embryogenesis to ensure timely patterning and differentiation of both head and trunk structures. For instance, the fate and morphogenesis of neural progenitors is dependent on signals produced by mesodermal cells and vice-versa. While some of the cellular and molecular signals that mediate these interactions have been described, much more remains to be uncovered. The scope of this collection will cover these interactions between neural (CNS or PNS) and mesodermal progenitors in patterning body plans and specific body systems in vertebrate embryos. This includes, but is not limited to, interactions influencing the formation of body axes, neural tube formation, neural crest migration, gut development, muscle patterning and myogenesis.