Obesity is one of the prime contributors to ill health in modern society, affecting around 20-25% of the population. It can cause or exacerbate a variety of health problems and is often associated with several other diseases including type II diabetes, coronary heart disease and certain types of cancer. Significant progress has been made in understanding the role of the nervous system and, in particular, the complex interplay between a range of orexigenic and anorectic agents within specific hypothalamic nuclei in the regulation of energy balance, appetite and adiposity. Several different neuronal pathways, neurotransmitters and hormones have been identified as major players in the regulation of feeding behavior and body weight and these are now being targeted as having therapeutic potential. Written for academic researchers and graduate students, Neurobiology of Obesity is a concise overview of recent developments in this field, written by leading international experts.