New clinical and biological insights from the international TARGIT-A randomised trial of targeted intraoperative radiotherapy during lumpectomy for breast cancer

Jayant S. Vaidya (Lead / Corresponding author), Max Bulsara, Michael Baum, Frederik Wenz, Samuele Massarut, Steffi Pigorsch, Michael Alvarado, Michael Douek, Christobel Saunders, Henrik Flyger, Wolfgang Eiermann, Chris Brew-Graves, Norman R. Williams, Ingrid Potyka, Nicholas Roberts, Marcelle Bernstein, Douglas Brown, Elena Sperk, Siobhan Laws, Marc SütterlinTammy Corica, Steinar Lundgren, Dennis Holmes, Lorenzo Vinante, Fernando Bozza, Montserrat Pazos, Magali Le Blanc-Onfroy, Günther Gruber, Wojciech Polkowski, Konstantin J. Dedes, Marcus Niewald, Jens Blohmer, David McReady, Richard Hoefer, Pond Kelemen, Gloria Petralia, Mary Falzon, David Joseph, Jeffrey S. Tobias

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    Abstract

    Background: The TARGIT-A trial reported risk-adapted targeted intraoperative radiotherapy (TARGIT-IORT) during lumpectomy for breast cancer to be as effective as whole-breast external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). Here, we present further detailed analyses.

    Methods: In total, 2298 women (≥45 years, invasive ductal carcinoma ≤3.5 cm, cN0-N1) were randomised. We investigated the impact of tumour size, grade, ER, PgR, HER2 and lymph node status on local recurrence-free survival, and of local recurrence on distant relapse and mortality. We analysed the predictive factors for recommending supplemental EBRT after TARGIT-IORT as part of the risk-adapted approach, using regression modelling. Non-breast cancer mortality was compared between TARGIT-IORT plus EBRT vs. EBRT.

    Results: Local recurrence-free survival was no different between TARGIT-IORT and EBRT, in every tumour subgroup. Unlike in the EBRT arm, local recurrence in the TARGIT-IORT arm was not a predictor of a higher risk of distant relapse or death. Our new predictive tool for recommending supplemental EBRT after TARGIT-IORT is at https://targit.org.uk/addrt . Non-breast cancer mortality was significantly lower in the TARGIT-IORT arm, even when patients received supplemental EBRT, HR 0.38 (95% CI 0.17-0.88) P = 0.0091.

    Conclusion: TARGIT-IORT is as effective as EBRT in all subgroups. Local recurrence after TARGIT-IORT, unlike after EBRT, has a good prognosis. TARGIT-IORT might have a beneficial abscopal effect.

    Trial Registration: ISRCTN34086741 (21/7/2004), NCT00983684 (24/9/2009).

    Original languageEnglish
    Number of pages10
    JournalBritish Journal of Cancer
    Early online date25 May 2021
    DOIs
    Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 25 May 2021

    Keywords

    • Breast cancer
    • Radiotherapy
    • Surgical oncology

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