The Nucleolar Proteome Database (NOPdb) archives data on >700 proteins that were identified by multiple mass spectrometry (MS) analyses from highly purified preparations of human nucleoli, the most prominent nuclear organelle. Each protein entry is annotated with information about its corresponding gene, its domain structures and relevant protein homologues across species, as well as documenting its MS identification history including all the peptides sequenced by tandem MS/MS. Moreover, data showing the quantitative changes in the relative levels ∼500 nucleolar proteins are compared at different timepoints upon transcriptional inhibition. Correlating changes in protein abundance at multiple timepoints, highlighted by visualization means in the NOPdb, provides clues regarding the potential interactions and relationships between nucleolar proteins and thereby suggests putative functions for factors within the 30% of the proteome which comprises novel/uncharacterized proteins. The NOPdb (http://www.lamondlab.com/NOPdb) is searchable by either gene names, nucleotide or protein sequences, Gene Ontology terms or motifs, or by limiting the range for isoelectric points and/or molecular weights and links to other databases (e.g. LocusLink, OMIM and PubMed).