Nuocytes and beyond: new insights into helminth expulsion

Daniel R. Neill, Andrew N. J. McKenzie (Lead / Corresponding author)

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

57 Citations (Scopus)


T helper 2 (Th2) responses, characterized by the expression of the type-2 cytokines interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-9 and IL-13, are essential for the control of parasitic helminth infections and also drive the pathogenesis of allergy and asthma. Such responses are initiated, maintained and regulated, in part, by an array of innate effector cells and cytokines. However, relatively little is known about how the initiation of type-2 immune responses occurs in vivo. The recent discovery, using helminth models, of several novel innate immune cells capable of shaping type-2 immune responses allows us to reflect on the progress made in this area. It also affords us the opportunity to highlight the diversity of immune responses that can be driven by innate cells responding rapidly to early cytokine cues.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)214-221
Number of pages8
JournalTrends in Parasitology
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - May 2011


  • Animals
  • Cytokines/immunology
  • Helminthiasis/immunology
  • Helminths/immunology
  • Humans
  • Leukocytes/immunology
  • Models, Immunological
  • Th2 Cells/immunology


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