Barrett's oesophagus (BO) and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD) are precursors of oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OAC). There is an oesophageal biofilm, which changes in disease, but its role in aetiopathogenesis remains unclear.
Blackett, K. L., Siddhi, S. S., Cleary, S., Steed, H., Miller, M. H., Macfarlane, S., Macfarlane, G. T., & Dillon, J. F. (2013). Oesophageal bacterial biofilm changes in gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, Barrett's and oesophageal carcinoma: association or causality? Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 37(11), 1084-1092. https://doi.org/10.1111/apt.12317