Non-invasive detection of urinary bladder cancer remains a significant challenge. Urinary volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are a promising alternative to cell-based biomarkers. Herein, we demonstrate a novel diagnostic platform based on an optic fluorescence sensor array for detecting urinary bladder cancer VOCs biomarkers. This study describes a fluorescence-based VOCs sensor array detecting system in detail. The choice of VOCs for the initial part was based on an extensive systematic search of the literature and then followed up using urinary samples from patients with urinary bladder transitional cell carcinoma. Canonical discriminant analysis (CDA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was employed and correctly detected 31/48 urinary bladder cancer VOC biomarkers and achieved an overall 77.75% sensitivity and 93.25% specificity by PLS-DA modelling. All five urine samples from bladder cancer patients and five healthy controls were successfully identified with the same sensor arrays. Overall, the experiments in this study describe a real-time platform for non-invasive bladder cancer diagnosis using fluorescence-based gassensor arrays. Pure VOCs and urine samples from the patients proved such a system to be promising, however further research is required using a larger population sample.
- bladder cancer
- urinary volatile organic compounds
- fluorescence gas sensory arrays