OBJECTIVE • To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of photodynamic diagnostic ureterorenoscopy after oral administration of 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) for upper urinary tract urothelial cancers. PATIENTS AND METHODS • In this audit, twenty-six patients underwent thirty-nine procedures (cystoscopy/ureterorenoscopy) following oral administration of 5-ALA for photodynamic diagnosis (PDD). • Twenty mg/kg body weight of 5-ALA was given orally 3 - 4 hours prior to the planned endoscopic visualisation. • Following standard white light cystoscopy and ureterorenoscopy, photodynamic diagnostic endoscopy was performed using D-light system (Olympus PDD cystoscope and 7.5Fr KARL STORZ PDD Flex-X ureterorenoscope) to detect fluorescence. • Biopsies were carried out from all suspicious areas, noting if lesions were detected under white or blue light or both. RESULTS • A total of sixty-two biopsies were performed for suspicious urothelial lesions (35 bladder, 26 ureter/renal pelvis and 1 from prostatic urethra). • Of the 35 bladder biopsies, 11 lesions were seen under both white and blue light and 91% of these were malignant. • While 24 (68.5%) biopsies were taken from lesions seen only under blue light and 45.8% of these were malignant. • Similarly, of the 26 ureteric/renal pelvicalyceal biopsies, 11 were concurrent in both white and blue light and 100% of these were malignant. • While 10 (38.5%) lesions were seen only under blue light and 70% of these were malignant. CONCLUSIONS • Photodynamic diagnosis using oral 5-ALA is safe and feasible with additional advantages of detecting lesions not visualised with conventional white light endoscopy. • This may translate into more complete treatment thereby decreasing subsequent recurrences and possibly progression of the upper urinary tract urothelial cancers.
- Photodynamic diagnosis
- Transitional cell carcinoma