Oral Azathioprine Leads to Higher Incorporation of 6-Thioguanine in DNA of Skin than Liver: The Protective Role of the Keap1/Nrf2/ARE Pathway

Sukirti Kalra, Ying Zhang, Elena V. Knatko, Stewart Finlayson, Masayuki Yamamoto, Albena T. Dinkova-Kostova

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    Abstract

    Azathioprine is a widely used anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, and anticancer agent. However, chronic treatment with this drug is associated with a profoundly increased risk (in certain cases by more than 100-fold) of developing squamous cell carcinoma of the skin. Incorporation of its ultimate metabolite, thio-dGTP, in DNA results in partial substitution of guanine with 6-thioguanine which, combined with exposure to UVA radiation, creates a source of synergistic mutagenic damage to DNA. We now report that oral treatment with azathioprine leads to a much greater incorporation of 6-thioguanine in DNA of mouse skin than liver. These higher levels of 6-thioguanine, together with the fact that the skin is constantly exposed to UV radiation from the sun, may be responsible, at least in part, for the increased susceptibility of this organ to tumor development. Genetic upregulation of the Keap1/Nrf2/ARE pathway, a major cellular regulator of the expression of a network of cytoprotective genes, reduces the incorporation of 6-thioguanine in DNA of both skin and liver following treatment with azathioprine. Similarly, pharmacologic activation of the pathway by the potent inducer sulforaphane results in lower 6-thioguanine incorporation in DNA and protects 6-thioguanine-treated cells against oxidative stress following exposure to UVA radiation. Protection is accompanied by increased levels of glutathione and induction of multidrug resistance-associated protein 4, an organic anion efflux pump that also exports nucleoside monophosphate analogues. Our findings suggest that activation of the Keap1/Nrf2/ARE pathway could reduce the risk for skin cancer in patients receiving long-term azathioprine therapy. Cancer Prev Res; 4(10); 1665-74. (C)2011 AACR.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)1665-1674
    Number of pages10
    JournalCancer Prevention Research
    Volume4
    Issue number10
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - Oct 2011

    Keywords

    • TOPICAL PHOTODYNAMIC THERAPY
    • TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR NRF2
    • BLOOD LEUKOCYTE DNA
    • GLUTATHIONE TRANSFERASES
    • TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS
    • GENE-EXPRESSION
    • MOUSE-LIVER
    • UVA LIGHT
    • CANCER
    • ENZYMES

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