Oxidative stress in renal dysfunction: mechanisms, clinical sequelae and therapeutic options

M. P. C. Kao, D. S. C. Ang, A. Pall, A. D. Struthers

    Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

    118 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Oxidative stress has been increasingly linked to the high incidence of cardiovascular events in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), especially as traditional cardiovascular risk factors seem to not be able to account for the huge cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in this population group. Oxidative stress is increased in patients with renal impairment as a result of increased oxidant activity and reduced antioxidant capacity, and this is increased in a graded manner with increasing renal dysfunction. Inflammation, which is also present in CKD, further amplifies the oxidant generation process. The two clinical sequelae of oxidative stress are endothelial dysfunction and left ventricular hypertrophy, which have adverse cardiovascular consequences. With our new understanding of oxidative stress, it is now important to assess treatment options that reduce it in the hope that they reverse endothelial dysfunction and left ventricular hypertrophy and the clinical sequelae of these abnormalities. Journal of Human Hypertension (2010) 24, 1-8; doi: 10.1038/jhh.2009.70; published online 3 September 2009

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)18
    Number of pages8
    JournalJournal of Human Hypertension
    Volume24
    Issue number1
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - Jan 2010

    Keywords

    • chronic kidney disease
    • oxidative stress
    • endothelial dysfunction
    • left ventricular hypertrophy
    • NITRIC-OXIDE SYNTHASE
    • LEFT-VENTRICULAR HYPERTROPHY
    • PLACEBO-CONTROLLED TRIAL
    • CHRONIC-HEMODIALYSIS PATIENTS
    • LONG-TERM SUPPLEMENTATION
    • VITAMIN-E SUPPLEMENTATION
    • CHRONIC KIDNEY-DISEASE
    • APOE-DEFICIENT MICE
    • CARDIOVASCULAR-DISEASE
    • SUPEROXIDE-DISMUTASE

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