Parenting Styles as a Moderator of the Association between Pubertal Timing and Chinese Adolescents’ Smoking Behavior

Hui Ling (Lead / Corresponding author), Yaqin Yan, En Fu, Amin Zhu, Jianren Zhang, Siyang Yuan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Pubertal timing refers to the timing of an individual regarding pubertal sexual mat-uration, both physiologically and psychologically. Existing research shows that pubertal timing is associated with behavioral problems. This study investigated the role of parenting style in the re-lationship between pubertal timing and Chinese adolescents’ smoking behavior.

Methods: The study examined the association of pubertal timing, parenting style and adolescents’ smoking be-havior, using the Pubertal Development Scale-Chinese version, Simplified Parenting Style Scale-Chinese version and 3 items of adolescences smoking situation. Participants were 1391 Chi-nese adolescents aged 11–16 years old (53.41% boys). Hierarchical linear regression analyses as-sessed the moderating role of parenting style on the association between pubertal timing and ado-lescent smoking behavior.

Results: The results indicated that parenting style moderates the rela-tionship between pubertal timing and adolescent smoking behavior. For male adolescents, father rejection moderated the relationship between early pubertal timing and smoking behavior. For female adolescents, father rejection, father emotional warmth, and mother emotional warmth moderated the relationship between pubertal timing and smoking behavior.

Conclusions: Findings from the study highlight the importance of parenting style, which may influence the negative outcomes associated with early pubertal timing and can help improve interventions aimed at re-ducing these negative outcomes.
Original languageEnglish
Article number8903
Number of pages12
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Issue number17
Publication statusPublished - 24 Aug 2021


  • puberty timing
  • parenting style
  • smoking behavior


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