Pathology of the oesophagus and stomach

Yvonne L. Woods, Frank A. Carey

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


The oesophagus is subject to a number of disorders affecting motility (swallowing) including gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, malignancy and disorders of neuromuscular function, such as achalasia. Most neoplasms of the oesophagus and stomach are epithelial in nature. Benign epithelial neoplasms usually take the form of polypoid lesions, such as oesophageal squamous papillomas, gastric adenomas, hyperplastic and fundic gland polyps. Malignant epithelial neoplasms of the oesophagus are divided into squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma, whereas malignant gastric neoplasms are predominantly adenocarcinomas. Each tends to develop in the context of dysplastic epithelial changes. Gastric carcinomas and lymphomas are associated with Helicobacter pylori infection. Stromal tumours of the stomach are important in that they have a distinctive molecular pathology and linked targeted therapy. This educational article provides an overview of the incidences, aetiologies and histological features of some of the most common mechanical, inflammatory and neoplastic pathologies encountered in the oesophagus and stomach. The emphasis is on clinical application.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)687-693
Number of pages7
JournalSurgery (United Kingdom)
Issue number11
Early online date17 Sept 2020
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2020


  • Achalasia
  • adenocarcinoma
  • atresia
  • Barrett's oesophagus
  • gastrointestinal stromal tumour
  • Helicobacter pylori gastritis
  • marginal zone lymphoma
  • oesophagus
  • squamous cell carcinoma
  • stomach

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery


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