Patient outcomes following AKI and AKD: a population-based cohort study

Huan Wang, Emilie Lambourg, Bruce Guthrie, Daniel R. Morales, Peter T. Donnan, Samira Bell (Lead / Corresponding author)

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Citations (Scopus)
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Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common and associated with adverse outcomes as well as important healthcare costs. However, evidence examining the epidemiology of acute kidney disease (AKD)—recently defined as AKI persisting between 7 and 90 days—remains limited. The aims of this study were to establish the rates of early AKI recovery, progression to AKD and non-recovery; examine risk factors associated with non-recovery and investigate the association between recovery timing and adverse outcomes, in a population-based cohort.

Methods: All adult residents of Tayside & Fife, Scotland, UK, with at least one episode of community or hospital-managed AKI using KDIGO creatinine-based definition during the period 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2018 were identified. Logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with non-recovery, and Cox modelling was used to establish associations between AKI recovery timing and risks of mortality and development of de novo CKD.

Results: Over 9 years, 56,906 patients with at least one AKI episode were identified with 18,773 (33%) of these progressing to AKD. Of those progressing to AKD, 5059 (27%) had still not recovered at day 90 post AKI diagnosis. Risk factors for AKD included: increasing AKI severity, pre-existing cancer or chronic heart failure and recent use of loop diuretics. Compared with early AKI recovery, progression to AKD was associated with increased hazard of 1-year mortality and de novo CKD (HR = 1.20, 95% CI 1.13 to 1.26 and HR = 2.21, 95% CI 1.91 to 2.57 respectively).

Conclusions: These findings highlight the importance of early AKI recognition and management to avoid progression to AKD and long-term adverse outcomes.

Original languageEnglish
Article number229
Number of pages17
JournalBMC Medicine
Publication statusPublished - 20 Jul 2022


  • Acute kidney disease
  • Acute kidney injury
  • Chronic kidney disease
  • Epidemiology
  • Recovery

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


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