Peer monitoring of process learning behaviours in school classrooms is defined and noted to have been under-researched and under-utilised. The existing literature is reviewed, with reference to organisational parameters associated with successful implementation. A case study of reciprocal class-wide peer monitoring with a difficult class of 6 year olds is reported. Evaluation involved pre-post observations of the on-task behaviour of four low-ability target children and patterns of teacher interaction with the whole class. Teacher time spent with the target children decreased markedly and teacher interactions became more balanced. The target children increased observed on-task behaviour from 45 per cent to 85 per cent. Implications for replication and extension are outlined.