Peri-procedural thromboprophylaxis in the prevention of DVT in varicose vein interventions: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Aqeel Alameer (Lead / Corresponding author), Thomas Aherne, Peter Naughton, Sayed Aly, Seamus McHugh, Daragh Moneley, Elrasheid A H Kheirelseid

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objective: A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to determine the role of thromboprophylaxis in the prevention of venous thromboembolism in patients undergoing varicose vein interventions.

Methods: PUBMED, EMBASE and Web of Science were searched for comparative studies of patients undergoing varicose vein interventions and received either thromboprophylaxis or no thromboprophylaxis. Data were collected on the number of thrombotic events including deep vein thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism (PE) and endothermal heat-induced thrombosis (EHIT) as well as bleeding events. The primary outcomes for the meta-analysis were the risk of all thrombotic events, risk of DVT and risk of bleeding. Pooled risk ratios were calculated using random effects modelling.

Results: Eight studies (6479 participants) were included. The use of thromboprophylaxis reduces the risk of all thrombotic events (Pooled risk ratio = 0.63, 95% Confidence interval [CI], 0.04-10.43) and the risk of DVT (Pooled risk ratio = 0.59, 95% CI, 0.08-4.60) with no increased risk of bleeding (Pooled risk ratio = 0.66, 95% CI, 0.06-7.21]. Rivaroxaban has similar efficacy in the prevention of DVT compared to Fondaparinux in patients undergoing endovenous ablation of varicose veins (Pooled risk ratio = 0.68, 95% CI, 0.06-7.41). An extended course of thromboprophylaxis reduces the risk of developing DVT compared to a short course (Pooled risk ratio = 1.40, 95% CI, 0.44-4.46). However, the two studies reporting on the duration of thromboprophylaxis did not stratify patients according to their risk of developing venous thromboembolism.

Conclusion: The use of thromboprophylaxis in patients undergoing varicose vein interventions reduces the risk of venous thromboembolism with no significant increase in the risk of bleeding. However, the included studies were underpowered with high to moderate risk of bias. Therefore, more randomised controlled trials with a large sample size are needed in order to provide high quality evidence for clinical practice.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)e392-e404
Number of pages13
JournalSurgeon: Journal of the Royal Colleges of Surgeons of Edinburgh and Ireland
Volume20
Issue number6
Early online date16 May 2022
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2022

Keywords

  • DVT prevention
  • Endovenous ablation
  • Thromboprophylaxis
  • Varicose veins
  • Vascular surgery

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery

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