Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) catalyzes the rate limiting step in hepatic gluconeogenesis. Glucagon (via the second messenger cAMP) and glucocorticoids stimulate the transcription of the PEPCK gene, whereas insulin and phorbol esters inhibit, in a dominant fashion, these effects, Wortmannin, an inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, prevents the stimulation of glycogen synthesis, glucose transport, mitogen-activated protein kinase, and p70/p85 ribosomal S6 protein kinase by insulin, We now show that wortmannin can also block the inhibition of glucocorticoid- and cAMP-stimulated PEPCK gene expression by insulin, PEPCK-chloramphenico1 acetyltransferase fusion gene experiments demonstrate that wortmannin blocks an activity that is required for insulin signaling to elements within the PEPCK promoter. Phorbol esters mimic the action of insulin on the regulation of PEPCK gene expression, but wortmannin does not block the effect of these agents, Thus, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase is required for the regulation of PEPCK gene expression by insulin, but not by phorbol esters, The immunosuppressant rapamycin, a potent inhibitor of insulin or phorbol. ester stimulation of p70/p85 ribosomal S6 protein kinase, has no significant effect on the regulation of PEPCK gene expression by insulin or phorbol esters. Thus, p70/p85 ribosomal S6 protein kinase does not have a role in signaling to the PEPCK promoter by insulin or phorbol esters.