Population Dynamics of Phytophthora infestans in Egypt Reveals Clonal Dominance of 23_A1 and Displacement of 13_A2 Clonal Lineage

Sherif Mohamed El-Ganainy (Lead / Corresponding author), Ahmed Mahmoud Ismail, Maali Shaker Soliman, Yosra Ahmed, Muhammad Naeem Sattar, Biju Vadakkemukadiyil Chellappan, David E. L. Cooke (Lead / Corresponding author)

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Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) and tomato (S. lycopersicum L.) are the most economically important vegetable crops in Egypt and worldwide. The winter crop in Egypt is particularly prone to late blight caused by Phytophthora infestans. A total of 152 P. infestans isolates were isolated from the 2013, 2014, 2016 and 2018 winter crops with 82 isolates from potato, 69 from tomato and one isolate from eggplant (S. melongena L.). All isolates belonged to the A1 mating type with no evidence of A2 or self-fertile strains. The majority of isolates (53%) were sensitive to metalaxyl, 32% were intermediate and 15% were resistant. Variation in aggressiveness between three P. infestans isolates EG-005 (13_A2) and EG-276 (23_A1) from potato, and EG-237 (23_A1) from eggplant was determined on tuber slices and leaflets of 10 potato cultivars. The eggplant isolate EG-237 showed higher sporulation capacity compared with the other tested isolates and was able to infect potato (Lady Rosetta cv) and tomato (Super Strain B cv). The simple sequence repeat (SSR) genotyping data showed that in contrast to our previous work (3-year period 2010-12) in which the proportion of 13_A2 lineage was 35%, all isolates belonged to the 23_A1 lineage. There was no evidence for the existence of the A2 mating type or 13_A2 lineage even in the destroyed field crops of some cultivars (Cara, Bellini and Valor) that had been reported as resistant to 23_A1. The data have been submitted into the Euroblight database to allow temporal and spatial genetic diversity to be examined in comparison with other regional P. infestans populations. The AVR2 and AVR2-like RXLR effector genes were amplified and sequenced. In the avirulent AVR2 gene, only one heterozygous SNP was detected at position 31 in the N terminus in six isolates out of eleven, whereas two heterozygous SNPs were detected at position 29 in the N-terminus and ninety-two in the C- terminus of the AVR2-like gene. This suggests that changes in the previously reported virulence profile of 23_A1 are not related to commercial cultivars carrying the R2 gene. In addition, this is the first report of P. infestans on eggplant in Egypt.

Original languageEnglish
Article number349
Number of pages19
JournalJournal of Fungi
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 13 Mar 2023


  • genotyping
  • multi locus alignments
  • late blight
  • mating type
  • AVR2
  • eggplant


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