Posteroanterior cephalometric analysis of the parental craniofacial morphology in orofacial clefting

G. T. McIntyre, P. A. Mossey

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    13 Citations (Scopus)


    Objective: To evaluate the parental craniofacial morphology in orofacial clefting (OFC). Design: Case-control posteroanterior cephalometric study. Setting: The Department of Orthodontics, University of Dundee Dental School, Scotland, United Kingdom. Participants: Ninety-two parents from a completely ascertained sample of 286 Scottish babies with nonsyndromic OFC and 43 comparison group volunteers from the University of Dundee Dental School. Main Outcome Measures: A conventional cephalometric analysis was used to measure linear distances and their ratios, angles, and areas. Two-sample Student's t tests and a discriminant analysis were applied to the data, and the clinically important statistically significant variables were identified using an accepted protocol. Results: Sixty-four linear distances, 10 ratios, 52 angles, and 7 areas statistically significantly differed between the parental and comparison groups (p < .01). Of these, 62 linear distances (22%), 9 ratios (45%), 41 angles (41%), and 6 areas (24%) were clinically important. Asymmetry was a feature of the results. Canonical variates analysis correctly classified 91.3% of the parental group and 90.6% of the comparison group using a series of 36 variables. Conclusions: The parental craniofacial morphology in OFC differs significantly from the noncleft population. A larger superolateral face and smaller central midface and, in particular, a clinically significantly smaller maxillary width, in conjunction with skeletal asymmetry, characterize the parents of Scottish children with OFC. These features may be of morphogenetic importance in the etiopathogenesis of OFC in this ethnic group.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)416-425
    Number of pages10
    JournalCleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal
    Issue number4
    Publication statusPublished - 2003


    • Orofacial clefting
    • PA cephalogram
    • PA cephalometric analysis
    • Parents


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