Pragmatic reappraisal of long-acting muscarinic antagonists at steps 4 and 5 for persistent adult asthma: Invited Perspective article for Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology

Brian Lipworth (Lead / Corresponding author), Kirsten Stewart, Rory Chan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
46 Downloads (Pure)
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)274-275
Number of pages2
JournalAnnals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology
Issue number3
Early online date22 May 2022
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2022


  • ong acting muscarinic antagonist
  • long acting beta-agonist
  • inhaled corticosteroid
  • triple inhaler
  • asthma exacerbations
  • asthma control Abbreviations AER: annualised exacerbation rate
  • COPD: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
  • FeNO: fractional exhaled breath nitric oxide
  • FEV1: forced expiratory volume in 1s
  • GINA: global initiative for asthma
  • ICS: inhaled corticosteroid
  • LABA: long acting beta-agonist
  • LAMA: long acting muscarinic antagonist
  • Ppb: parts per billion
  • TTT: time to treat to prevent an exacerbation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology

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