Precision Medicine in Diabetes

Adem Y. Dawed, Eram Haider, Ewan R. Pearson (Lead / Corresponding author)

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter (peer-reviewed)peer-review


Tailoring treatment or management to groups of individuals based on specific clinical, molecular, and genomic features is the concept of precision medicine. Diabetes is highly heterogenous with respect to clinical manifestations, disease progression, development of complications, and drug response. The current practice for drug treatment is largely based on evidence from clinical trials that report average effects. However, around half of patients with type 2 diabetes do not achieve glycaemic targets despite having a high level of adherence and there are substantial differences in the incidence of adverse outcomes. Therefore, there is a need to identify predictive markers that can inform differential drug responses at the point of prescribing. Recent advances in molecular genetics and increased availability of real-world and randomised trial data have started to increase our understanding of disease heterogeneity and its impact on potential treatments for specific groups. Leveraging information from simple clinical features (age, sex, BMI, ethnicity, and co-prescribed medications) and genomic markers has a potential to identify sub-groups who are likely to benefit from a given drug with minimal adverse effects. In this chapter, we will discuss the state of current evidence in the discovery of clinical and genetic markers that have the potential to optimise drug treatment in type 2 diabetes.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationPrecision Medicine
EditorsIngolf Cascorbi, Matthias Schwab
Place of PublicationSwitzerland
Number of pages23
ISBN (Electronic)9783031400476
ISBN (Print)9783031400469 (hbk), 9783031400490 (pbk)
Publication statusPublished - 2023

Publication series

NameHandbook of Experimental Pharmacology
ISSN (Print)0171-2004
ISSN (Electronic)1865-0325


  • Adverse drug outcomes
  • Genomics
  • Glycaemic response
  • Precision medicine
  • type 2 diabetes
  • Type 2 diabetes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics(all)


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