Prescribing patterns and response to antihyperglycemic agents among novel clusters of type 2 diabetes in Asian Indians

Ranjit Mohan Anjana (Lead / Corresponding author), Moneeza Kalhan Siddiqui, Saravanan Jebarani, Mani Arun Vignesh, Nithyanantham Kamal Raj, Ranjit Unnikrishnan, Rajendra Pradeepa, Vijay K. Panikar, Jothydev Kesavadev, Banshi Saboo, Sunil Gupta, Aravind R. Sosale, Krishna G. Seshadri, Neeta Deshpande, Manoj Chawla, Purvi Chawla, Sidhartha Das, Manoranjan Behera, Rajeev Chawla, Anant NigamArvind Gupta, Rajiv Kovil, Shashank R. Joshi, Sanjay Agarwal, Sarita Bajaj, Ewan R. Pearson, Alexander S. F. Doney, Colin N. A. Palmer, Viswanathan Mohan

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Aim: To assess the prescribing patterns and response to different classes of antihyperglycemic agents in novel clusters of type 2 diabetes (T2D) described in India.

Materials and Methods: We attempted to replicate the earlier described clusters of T2D, in 32,867 individuals with new-onset T2D (within 2 years of diagnosis) registered between October 2013 and December 2020 at 15 diabetes clinics located across India, by means of k-means clustering utilizing 6 clinically relevant variables. Individuals who had follow-up glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) up to 2 years were included for the drug response analysis (n = 13,247).

Results: Among the 32,867 participants included in the study, 20,779 (63.2%) were males. The average age at diagnosis was 45 years and mean HbA1c at baseline was 8.9%. The same four clusters described in India earlier were replicated. Forty percent of the study participants belonged to the mild age-related diabetes cluster, followed by insulin-resistant obese diabetes (27%), severe insulin-deficient diabetes (21%), and combined insulin-resistant and insulin-deficient diabetes (12%) clusters. The most frequently used antihyperglycemic agents were sulfonylureas, metformin, and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors apart from insulin. While there were significant differences in HbA1c reduction between drugs across clusters, these were largely driven by differences in the baseline (pretreatment) HbA1c.

Conclusions: In this new cohort, we were able to reliably replicate the four subtypes of T2D earlier described in Asian Indians. Prescribing patterns show limited usage of newer antihyperglycemic agents across all clusters. Randomized clinical trials are required to establish differential drug responses between clusters.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)190-200
Number of pages11
JournalDiabetes Technology & Therapeutics
Issue number3
Early online date5 Oct 2021
Publication statusPublished - 14 Mar 2022


  • Type 2 diabetes
  • Drug response
  • Clusters
  • Antihyperglycemic agents
  • Indians

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medical Laboratory Technology
  • Endocrinology
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism


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