Prior context influences motor brain areas in an auditory oddball task and prefrontal cortex multitasking modelling

Carlos A. Mugruza-Vassallo (Lead / Corresponding author), Douglas D. Potter, Stamatina Tsiora, Jennifer A. Macfarlane, Adele Maxwell

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Abstract

In this study, the relationship of orienting of attention, motor control and the Stimulus-(SDN) and Goal-Driven Networks (GDN) was explored through an innovative method for fMRI analysis considering all voxels in four experimental conditions: standard target (Goal; G), novel (N), neutral (Z) and noisy target (NG). First, average reaction times (RTs) for each condition were calculated. In the second level analysis, ‘distracted’ participants, as indicated by slower RTs, evoked brain activations and differences in both hemispheres’ neural networks for selective attention, while the participants, as a whole, demonstrated mainly left cortical and subcortical activations. A context analysis was run in the behaviourally distracted participant group contrasting the trials immediately prior to the G trials, namely one of the Z, N or NG conditions, i.e. Z.G, N.G, NG.G. Results showed different prefrontal activations dependent on prior context in the auditory modality, recruiting between 1 to 10 prefrontal areas. The higher the motor response and influence of the previous novel stimulus, the more prefrontal areas were engaged, which extends the findings of hierarchical studies of prefrontal control of attention and better explains how auditory processing interferes with movement. Also, the current study addressed how subcortical loops and models of previous motor response affected the signal processing of the novel stimulus, when this was presented laterally or simultaneously with the target. This multitasking model could enhance our understanding on how an auditory stimulus is affecting motor responses in a way that is self-induced, by taking into account prior context, as demonstrated in the standard condition and as supported by Pulvinar activations complementing visual findings. Moreover, current BCI works address some multimodal stimulusdriven systems.
Original languageEnglish
Article number5
Number of pages28
JournalBrain Informatics
Volume8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 21 Mar 2021

Keywords

  • Attention
  • Cognitive modelling
  • Electroencephalography (EEG)
  • Event-related potential (ERP)
  • Executive function
  • Cue–target onset asynchrony (CTOA)
  • Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)
  • Motor networks
  • Multitask applications
  • Prefrontal cortex (PFC)
  • Orienting of attention
  • Running average reaction times

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