Probiotics in Extraintestinal Diseases: Current Trends and New Directions

Despoina E. Kiousi, Athanasios Karapetsas, Kyriaki Karolidou, Mihalis I. Panayiotidis, Aglaia Pappa, Alex Galanis (Lead / Corresponding author)

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

4 Citations (Scopus)
106 Downloads (Pure)


Probiotics are defined as live microorganisms that when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit to the host. Their positive supplementation outcomes on several gastrointestinal disorders are well defined. Nevertheless, their actions are not limited to the gut, but may also impart their beneficial effects at distant sites and organs. In this regard, in this review article we: (i) comprehensively describe the main mechanisms of action of probiotics at distant sites, including bones, skin, and brain; (ii) critically present their therapeutic potential against bone, skin, and neuronal diseases (e.g., osteoporosis, non-healing wounds and autoimmune skin illnesses, mood, behavior, memory, and cognitive impairments); (iii) address the current gaps in the preclinical and clinical research; and (iv) indicate new research directions and suggest future investigations.

Original languageEnglish
Article number788
Pages (from-to)1-26
Number of pages26
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 5 Apr 2019



  • Bone
  • Gastrointestinal
  • Microbiota
  • Neuronal disease
  • Probiotics
  • Skin

Cite this

Kiousi, D. E., Karapetsas, A., Karolidou, K., Panayiotidis, M. I., Pappa, A., & Galanis, A. (2019). Probiotics in Extraintestinal Diseases: Current Trends and New Directions. Nutrients, 11(4), 1-26. [788].