Probiotics are defined as live microorganisms that when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit to the host. Their positive supplementation outcomes on several gastrointestinal disorders are well defined. Nevertheless, their actions are not limited to the gut, but may also impart their beneficial effects at distant sites and organs. In this regard, in this review article we: (i) comprehensively describe the main mechanisms of action of probiotics at distant sites, including bones, skin, and brain; (ii) critically present their therapeutic potential against bone, skin, and neuronal diseases (e.g., osteoporosis, non-healing wounds and autoimmune skin illnesses, mood, behavior, memory, and cognitive impairments); (iii) address the current gaps in the preclinical and clinical research; and (iv) indicate new research directions and suggest future investigations.
- Neuronal disease