This paper considers the relationship between process tutoring behaviours and outcomes in terms of reading-test gains, with specific reference to the paired reading (PR) technique. Process X outcome studies from England, Scotland, New Zealand, the USA and Hong Kong are reviewed. The evidence on the relationship between reading practice time and reading gains is discussed. Studies comparing PR to other techniques are briefly appraised and meta-analytic comparative evidence evaluated. A typology of factors underpinning tutoring behaviours is presented, suggesting avenues for further research. It is concluded that PR compliance rates vary greatly from study to study. Only two out of seven studies convincingly relate compliance to outcome. It is suggested that future research should consider a more macro level of analysis of tutoring behaviour or organisational factors such as training and follow-up structure and quality, and the nature of reading material and outcome measures.