This review analyses the potential beneficial effects of procyanidins, the main class of flavonoids, in situations in which glucose homeostasis is disrupted. Because the disruption of glucose homeostasis can occur as a result of various causes, we critically review the effects of procyanidins based on the specific origin of each type of disruption. Where little or no insulin is present (Type I diabetic animals), summarized studies of procyanidin treatment suggest that procyanidins have a short-lived insulin-mimetic effect on the internal targets of the organism, an effect not reproduced in normoglycemic, normoinsulinemic healthy animals. Insulin resistance (usually linked to hyperinsulinemia) poses a very different situation. Preventive studies using fructose-fed models indicate that procyanidins may be useful in preventing the induction of damage and thus in limiting hyperglycemia. But the results of other studies using models such as high-fat diet treated rats or genetically obese animals are controversial. Although the effects on glucose parameters are hazy, it is known that procyanidins target key tissues involved in its homeostasis. Interestingly, all available data suggest that procyanidins are more effective when administered in one acute load than when mixed with food.
Pinent, M., Cedó, L., Montagut, G., Blay, M., & Ardévol, A. (2012). Procyanidins Improve some Disrupted Glucose Homoeostatic Situations: An Analysis of Doses and Treatments According to Different Animal Models. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 52(7), 569-584. https://doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2010.501533