Objective: This article presents the implementation of surgeon's musculoskeletal model for gesture analysis in laparoscopy, thereby providing a complete account of the objective metrics needed to evaluate surgical performance and to improve the design of new surgical instruments including robotic instrumentation for surgical procedures.
Background: Previous published work has been based exclusively on the kinematics involved whereas, this study is focused on the dynamics and muscle contraction analysis to assess loads on bones and muscle fatigue during simulation of surgical interventions.
Methods: Nine medical students and 2 fully trained surgeons participated in the experimental sessions using a virtual laparoscopic simulator. Movement was acquired by means of an Optical Localization System and processed by means of the biomechanical software platform ADAMS-LifeMOD.
Results: The musculo-skeletal analysis allows calculation of how the muscles are used and their respective mean work during the exercises. Results, relative to biceps and trapezius for left and right arm, clearly demonstrate different proficiencies between surgeons and medical students and highlight differences in using different surgical instruments and assumption of different postures.
Conclusions: The model provides data on the evaluation of biomechanical parameters of surgical gesture not only in kinematic terms but also includes analysis of the dynamics of muscle contraction analysis during surgical manipulations. (Ann Surg 2012; 255: 394-398)