Prospective study of leukocytes and leukocyte subpopulations in semen suggests they are not a cause of male infertility

Mathew James Tomlinson, Christopher Lowther Robert Barratt, Ian Douglas Cooke

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

156 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objective: To determine the effects of leukocytes in semen on sperm quality and the ability to achieve conception.

Design: A prospective analysis of 512 couples attending a regional infertility clinic. Leukocyte subsets were quantified using a monoclonal antibody-based staining procedure. In addition to basic seminal parameters (density, motility, morphology, and antisperm antibodies), reactive oxygen species and immature germ cells were also quantified in the semen of each patient. The presence or absence of a treatment-independent conception was determined 22 months after the start of the study. Semen parameters were then related to the ability to conceive.

Setting: University-based center for reproductive medicine.

Participants: Success or failure to conceive was recorded from 512 couples. Couples were then selected to minimize the influence of any pathology of the female on outcome. A final study group of 229 couples, in which the women had regular menstrual cycles, ovulatory midluteal serum P levels of > 18 nmol/L, and patent fallopian tubes was finally selected for analysis.

Main outcome measure: Pregnancy.

Results: Leukocyte concentration (total or individual subsets) was not associated with either reduced semen quality or conception rates. Similarly, neither reactive oxygen species or antisperm antibody (immunobead) concentration had any bearing on the outcome. Of all semen parameters measured, only the level of immature germ cells was found to be negatively associated with the rate of conception.

Conclusion: Measurement of seminal leukocytes in routine semen analysis appears to be of little prognostic value with regard to male fertilizing potential. As reactive oxygen species and antisperm measurement were of similar predictive value, the term "immunologic male infertility" should be redefined.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1069-75
Number of pages7
JournalFertility and Sterility
Volume60
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 1993

Fingerprint

Male Infertility
Semen
Leukocytes
Prospective Studies
Reactive Oxygen Species
Semen Analysis
Germ Cells
Reproductive Medicine
Fallopian Tubes
Antibodies
Menstrual Cycle
Infertility
Spermatozoa
Monoclonal Antibodies
Outcome Assessment (Health Care)
Pathology
Staining and Labeling
Pregnancy
Serum
Therapeutics

Keywords

  • Autoantibodies/analysis
  • Female
  • HLA-DR Antigens/analysis
  • Humans
  • Infertility, Male/etiology
  • Leukocyte Count
  • Leukocytes/pathology
  • Macrophages/immunology
  • Male
  • Neutrophils/pathology
  • Oligospermia/etiology
  • Pregnancy
  • Prospective Studies
  • Reactive Oxygen Species/analysis
  • Semen/cytology
  • Sperm Count
  • Sperm Motility
  • Spermatozoa/immunology
  • Vasovasostomy

Cite this

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title = "Prospective study of leukocytes and leukocyte subpopulations in semen suggests they are not a cause of male infertility",
abstract = "Objective: To determine the effects of leukocytes in semen on sperm quality and the ability to achieve conception.Design: A prospective analysis of 512 couples attending a regional infertility clinic. Leukocyte subsets were quantified using a monoclonal antibody-based staining procedure. In addition to basic seminal parameters (density, motility, morphology, and antisperm antibodies), reactive oxygen species and immature germ cells were also quantified in the semen of each patient. The presence or absence of a treatment-independent conception was determined 22 months after the start of the study. Semen parameters were then related to the ability to conceive.Setting: University-based center for reproductive medicine.Participants: Success or failure to conceive was recorded from 512 couples. Couples were then selected to minimize the influence of any pathology of the female on outcome. A final study group of 229 couples, in which the women had regular menstrual cycles, ovulatory midluteal serum P levels of > 18 nmol/L, and patent fallopian tubes was finally selected for analysis.Main outcome measure: Pregnancy.Results: Leukocyte concentration (total or individual subsets) was not associated with either reduced semen quality or conception rates. Similarly, neither reactive oxygen species or antisperm antibody (immunobead) concentration had any bearing on the outcome. Of all semen parameters measured, only the level of immature germ cells was found to be negatively associated with the rate of conception.Conclusion: Measurement of seminal leukocytes in routine semen analysis appears to be of little prognostic value with regard to male fertilizing potential. As reactive oxygen species and antisperm measurement were of similar predictive value, the term {"}immunologic male infertility{"} should be redefined.",
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author = "Tomlinson, {Mathew James} and Barratt, {Christopher Lowther Robert} and Cooke, {Ian Douglas}",
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journal = "Fertility and Sterility",
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Prospective study of leukocytes and leukocyte subpopulations in semen suggests they are not a cause of male infertility. / Tomlinson, Mathew James; Barratt, Christopher Lowther Robert; Cooke, Ian Douglas.

In: Fertility and Sterility, Vol. 60, No. 6, 12.1993, p. 1069-75.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Prospective study of leukocytes and leukocyte subpopulations in semen suggests they are not a cause of male infertility

AU - Tomlinson, Mathew James

AU - Barratt, Christopher Lowther Robert

AU - Cooke, Ian Douglas

PY - 1993/12

Y1 - 1993/12

N2 - Objective: To determine the effects of leukocytes in semen on sperm quality and the ability to achieve conception.Design: A prospective analysis of 512 couples attending a regional infertility clinic. Leukocyte subsets were quantified using a monoclonal antibody-based staining procedure. In addition to basic seminal parameters (density, motility, morphology, and antisperm antibodies), reactive oxygen species and immature germ cells were also quantified in the semen of each patient. The presence or absence of a treatment-independent conception was determined 22 months after the start of the study. Semen parameters were then related to the ability to conceive.Setting: University-based center for reproductive medicine.Participants: Success or failure to conceive was recorded from 512 couples. Couples were then selected to minimize the influence of any pathology of the female on outcome. A final study group of 229 couples, in which the women had regular menstrual cycles, ovulatory midluteal serum P levels of > 18 nmol/L, and patent fallopian tubes was finally selected for analysis.Main outcome measure: Pregnancy.Results: Leukocyte concentration (total or individual subsets) was not associated with either reduced semen quality or conception rates. Similarly, neither reactive oxygen species or antisperm antibody (immunobead) concentration had any bearing on the outcome. Of all semen parameters measured, only the level of immature germ cells was found to be negatively associated with the rate of conception.Conclusion: Measurement of seminal leukocytes in routine semen analysis appears to be of little prognostic value with regard to male fertilizing potential. As reactive oxygen species and antisperm measurement were of similar predictive value, the term "immunologic male infertility" should be redefined.

AB - Objective: To determine the effects of leukocytes in semen on sperm quality and the ability to achieve conception.Design: A prospective analysis of 512 couples attending a regional infertility clinic. Leukocyte subsets were quantified using a monoclonal antibody-based staining procedure. In addition to basic seminal parameters (density, motility, morphology, and antisperm antibodies), reactive oxygen species and immature germ cells were also quantified in the semen of each patient. The presence or absence of a treatment-independent conception was determined 22 months after the start of the study. Semen parameters were then related to the ability to conceive.Setting: University-based center for reproductive medicine.Participants: Success or failure to conceive was recorded from 512 couples. Couples were then selected to minimize the influence of any pathology of the female on outcome. A final study group of 229 couples, in which the women had regular menstrual cycles, ovulatory midluteal serum P levels of > 18 nmol/L, and patent fallopian tubes was finally selected for analysis.Main outcome measure: Pregnancy.Results: Leukocyte concentration (total or individual subsets) was not associated with either reduced semen quality or conception rates. Similarly, neither reactive oxygen species or antisperm antibody (immunobead) concentration had any bearing on the outcome. Of all semen parameters measured, only the level of immature germ cells was found to be negatively associated with the rate of conception.Conclusion: Measurement of seminal leukocytes in routine semen analysis appears to be of little prognostic value with regard to male fertilizing potential. As reactive oxygen species and antisperm measurement were of similar predictive value, the term "immunologic male infertility" should be redefined.

KW - Autoantibodies/analysis

KW - Female

KW - HLA-DR Antigens/analysis

KW - Humans

KW - Infertility, Male/etiology

KW - Leukocyte Count

KW - Leukocytes/pathology

KW - Macrophages/immunology

KW - Male

KW - Neutrophils/pathology

KW - Oligospermia/etiology

KW - Pregnancy

KW - Prospective Studies

KW - Reactive Oxygen Species/analysis

KW - Semen/cytology

KW - Sperm Count

KW - Sperm Motility

KW - Spermatozoa/immunology

KW - Vasovasostomy

U2 - 10.1016/S0015-0282(16)56412-7

DO - 10.1016/S0015-0282(16)56412-7

M3 - Article

VL - 60

SP - 1069

EP - 1075

JO - Fertility and Sterility

JF - Fertility and Sterility

SN - 0015-0282

IS - 6

ER -