Protection of Sites

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter (peer-reviewed)peer-review


This chapter examines the role of protected sites in biodiversity conservation and in the overall conservation enterprise. It first provides an overview of the International Union for Conservation of Nature’s work on definition and classification for protected sites before discussing the legal basis and the governance arrangements for protected areas. It then considers a range of issues surrounding the designation of protected sites, along with legal measures for their conservation and enhancement (e.g. management plans, controls on visitors and activities, positive conservation). It also explores the issue of enforcement and various measures used for the conservation of marine-protected areas before concluding with an analysis of two major challenges which may necessitate a rethinking of the role and place of protected areas in conservation: the first arises from our improved understanding of what is needed for biodiversity to thrive, and the second is posed by climate change.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationOxford Handbook of Environmental Law
EditorsEmma Lees, Jorge Vinuales
Place of PublicationOxford
PublisherOxford University Press
Number of pages18
ISBN (Print)9780198790952
Publication statusPublished - May 2019


  • Environmental law
  • Biodiversity conservation
  • Habitat conservation
  • Designated sites


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