Dyslexic students may be disadvantaged in their use of written language, impeding academic achievement, and requiring remediation and concessions. A proximal analysis assessed the operations of the 3 major pathways (orthography to semantics, orthography to phonology, and phonology to orthography) within models of reading and spelling through lexical decision, reading aloud, and spelling aloud. No dyslexic individual exactly matched the group outcomes on all of the indicators, and no 2 dyslexic individuals presented identical profiles. A multicomponent mosaic model is supported whereby dyslexic difficulties relate to functions that require manipulation of orthographic and phonological units. A documented history and cognitive indicators of orthographic processing may offer a viable approach to the diagnosis, remediation, and concession of adult dyslexia in higher education.
Erskine, J. M., & Seymour, P. H. K. (2005). Proximal analysis of developmental dyslexia in adulthood: the cognitive mosaic model. Journal of Educational Psychology, 97(3), 406-424. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0622.214.171.1246