Ectodomain shedding is a key mechanism of several biological processes, including cell-communication. Disintegrin and metalloproteinases (ADAMs), together with the membrane-type matrix metalloproteinases, play a pivotal role in shedding transmembrane proteins. Aberrant shedding is associated to several pathological conditions, including arthritis. Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteases 3 (TIMP-3), an endogenous inhibitor of ADAMs and matrix metalloproteases (MMPs), has been proven to be beneficial in such diseases. Thus, strategies to increase TIMP-3 bioavailability in the tissue have been sought for development of therapeutics. Nevertheless, high levels of TIMP-3 may lead to mechanism-based side-effects, as its overall effects on cell behavior are still unknown. In this study, we used a high-resolution mass-spectrometry-based workflow to analyze alterations induced by sustained expression of TIMP-3 in the cell surfaceome. In agreement with its multifunctional properties, TIMP-3 induced changes on the protein composition of the cell surface. We found that TIMP-3 had differential effects on metalloproteinase substrates, with several that accumulated in TIMP-3-overexpressing cells. In addition, our study identified potentially novel ADAM substrates, including ADAM15, whose levels at the cell surface are regulated by the inhibitor. In conclusion, our study reveals that high levels of TIMP-3 induce modifications in the cell surfaceome and identifies molecular pathways that can be deregulated via TIMP-3-based therapies.
- Ectodomain shedding
- Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteases 3 (TIMP-3)