Rapidly Deployable System Including a CSA Gunite Material for the Structural Stabilization of Shock Damaged Structures

Robert Jewell, Tom Robl, Martyn Jones, Peter Mills, Anthoula Ouzounidou

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution


The University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER), Minova USA Inc. and the University of Dundee, Scotland, have collaborated on a project to develop a rapidly deployable system to stabilize shock damaged structures to avoid catastrophic failure. The system comprises a dry-gunned or “gunite” apparatus that sprays a mixture of rapid-hardening cement, sand and water onto a damaged surface. The cement component is based on calcium sulfoaluminate (CSA), and is capable of achieving structural strengths within 15 to 30 minutes. The project research began with a performance comparison of commercially available CSA cements. After determining which cement exhibited the best performance, an extensive research program was initiated to quantify and optimize the effects of variables including water content, aggregate content and gradation, and ratio of cement to
aggregate. The experimental results produced a sprayed concrete mix that exceeded expectations in performance
between 15 minutes and 24 hours after spraying. Achieving structural strengths within 15 to 30 minutes allows
first responders to enter into damaged buildings with less fear of a collapsing structure.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationConcrete in the low carbon era
EditorsM Roderick Jones, Moray D Newlands, Judith E Halliday, Laszlo J Csetenyi, Li Zheng, Michael J McCarthy, Thomas D Dyer
Place of PublicationUnited Kingdom
PublisherUniversity of Dundee
Number of pages18
ISBN (Electronic)9780957326309
Publication statusPublished - 2012


  • Calcium sulfoaluminate
  • Gunite
  • Rapid stabilization
  • Shotcrete

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Civil and Structural Engineering


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