Raynaud’s Phenomenon: State of the Art 1998

Meilien Ho, Jill Belch

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    52 Citations (Scopus)


    Raynaud's Phenomenon (RP) is a relatively common problem which may be troublesome and difficult to treat in a minority of patients. The state of the art in 1998 focusses on three key areas: the clinical spectrum of RP; its progression and prognosis; and its treatment. RP is a systemic disease, with a multifactorial aetiology and vasospasm affects not just the digits and skin but also major organs including the heart, lungs and kidneys. It is important to distinguish primary from secondary RP. RP may predate an associated connective tissue disease by many years and markers for this include severe RP symptoms with trophic skin changes, serological abnormalities and abnormal nailfold capillaries.
    Repeated attacks of vasospasm may cause ischaemic reperfusion injury to the endothelium, resulting in a vicious and self propagating cycle of cause and effect. Nifedipine remains the "gold standard" of treatment but a number of new and promising drugs, eg relaxin, are currently under investigation. "Vasodilator-plus" drugs, with the ability to also modulate some of the haemorrheological abnormalities in RP, are the drugs that are going to have a major clinical impact on the disease and hold promise for the future.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)319-322
    Number of pages4
    JournalScandinavian Journal of Rheumatology
    Issue number5
    Publication statusPublished - 1998


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