Recycling Aluminium AA6061 Chips with Reinforced Boron Carbide (B4C) and Zirconia (ZrO2) Particles via Hot Extrusion

Sami Al-Alimi, Shazarel Shamsudin, Nur Kamilah Yusuf, Mohd Amri Lajis, Wenbin Zhou (Lead / Corresponding author), Djamal Hissein Didane, Safwan Sadeq, Yazid Saif, Ahmed Wahib, Zawati Harun

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)
3 Downloads (Pure)


Compared to the recycling process by remelting, hot extrusion significantly reduces the energy consumption and CO2 emission and ensures good mechanical and microstructural properties. This study investigates the effects of reinforcing aluminium AA6061 chips with mixed boron carbide (B4C) and zirconia (ZrO2) particles by employing a design of experiment (DOE) under 550 °C processing temperature and three hours preheating time. The findings showed that compressive strength (CS) and hardness increased with up to 5% added particles, and beyond 5%, the yielded values decreased because of materials agglomeration. However, the decreasing density was dependent on the addition of ZrO2 particles. The distribution of particles with different volume fractions of mixed particles was investigated by employing SEM, AFM, and EDS tests. Thus, the process can produce a net shape structure that utilises material-bonding consolidation to provide sufficient support to reuse the recovered materials in engineering applications, such as in the automotive industry.
Original languageEnglish
Article number1329
Number of pages16
Issue number8
Early online date8 Aug 2022
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2022


  • solid-state recycling (SSR)
  • hybrid materials
  • AA6061 chips
  • boron carbide (B4C)
  • zirconia (ZrO2 )
  • hot extrusion
  • design of experiment (DOE)


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