Regional and temporal differences in the associations between cardiovascular disease and its classic risk factors: An analysis of 49 cohorts from 11 European countries

Jaakko Reinikainen (Lead / Corresponding author), Kari Kuulasmaa, Viktor Oskarsson, Philippe Amouyel, Katia Biasch, Hermann Brenner, Roberto De Ponti, Chiara Donfrancesco, Wojciech Drygas, Jean Ferrieres, Guido Grassi, Sameline Grimsgaard, Licia Iacoviello, Pekka Jousilahti, Line L Kårhus, Frank Kee, Allan Linneberg, Dalia Luksiene, Joany Mariño, Marie MoitryLuigi Palmieri, Annette Peters, Aleksandra Piwonska, Fosca Quarti-Trevano, Veikko Salomaa, Susana Sans, Carsten Oliver Schmidt, Ben Schöttker, Stefan Söderberg, Abdonas Tamosiunas, Barbara Thorand, Hugh Tunstall-Pedoe, Diego Vanuzzo, Giovanni Veronesi, Mark Woodward, Karim Lekadir, Teemu Niiranen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

AIMS: The regional and temporal differences in the associations between cardiovascular disease (CVD) and its classic risk factors are unknown. The current study examined these associations in different European regions over a 30-year period.

METHODS: The study sample comprised 553818 individuals from 49 cohorts in 11 European countries (baseline: 1982-2012) who were followed up for a maximum of 10 years. Risk factors (sex, smoking, diabetes, non-HDL [high-density lipoprotein] cholesterol, systolic blood pressure [BP], and body mass index [BMI]) and CVD events (coronary heart disease or stroke) were harmonized across cohorts. Risk factor-outcome associations were analysed using multivariable-adjusted Cox regression models, and differences in associations were assessed using meta-regression.

RESULTS: The differences in the risk factor-CVD associations between central Europe, northern Europe, southern Europe, and the United Kingdom were generally small. Men had a slightly higher hazard ratio (HR) in southern Europe (p = 0.043 for overall difference) and those with diabetes had a slightly lower HR in central Europe (p = 0.022 for overall difference) compared with the other regions. Of the six CVD risk factors, minor HR decreases per decade were observed for non-HDL cholesterol (7% per mmol/L; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3-10%) and systolic BP (4% per 20 mmHg; 95% CI, 1-8%), while a minor HR increase per decade was observed for BMI (7% per 10 kg/m2; 95% CI, 1-13%).

CONCLUSION: The results demonstrate that all classic CVD risk factors are still relevant in Europe, irrespective of regional area. Preventive strategies should focus on risk factors with the greatest population attributable risk.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberzwad359
Number of pages28
JournalEuropean Journal of Preventive Cardiology
Early online date17 Nov 2023
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 17 Nov 2023

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