Regulation of hippocampal synaptic function by the metabolic hormone, leptin

Implications for health and neurodegenerative disease

Gemma Mcgregor, Jenni Harvey (Lead / Corresponding author)

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

3 Citations (Scopus)
65 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

The role of the endocrine hormone leptin in controlling energy homeostasis in the hypothalamus are well documented. However the CNS targets for leptin are not restricted to the hypothalamus as a high density of leptin receptors are also expressed in several parts of the brain involved in higher cognitive functions including the hippocampus. Numerous studies have identified that in the hippocampus, leptin has cognitive enhancing actions as exogenous application of this hormone facilitates hippocampal-dependent learning and memory, whereas lack or insensitivity to leptin results in significant memory deficits. Leptin also markedly influences some of the main cellular changes that are involved in learning and memory including NMDA-receptor dependent synaptic plasticity and glutamate receptor trafficking. Like other metabolic hormones, there is a significant decline in neuronal sensitivity to leptin during the ageing process. Indeed, the capacity of leptin to modulate the functioning of hippocampal synapses is substantially reduced in aged compared to adult tissue. Clinical studies have also identified an association between circulating leptin levels and the risk of certain neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). In view of this, targeting leptin and/or its receptor/signaling mechanisms may be an innovative approach for developing therapies to treat AD. In support of this, accumulating evidence indicates that leptin has cognitive enhancing and neuroprotective actions in various models of AD. Here we assess recent evidence that supports an important regulatory role for leptin at hippocampal CA1 synapses, and we discuss how age-related alterations in this hormonal system influences neurodegenerative disease.

Original languageEnglish
Article number340
Number of pages11
JournalFrontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Volume12
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 16 Oct 2018

Fingerprint

Leptin
Neurodegenerative Diseases
Hormones
Health
Alzheimer Disease
Synapses
Hypothalamus
Hippocampus
Learning
Leptin Receptors
Neurotransmitter Receptor
Neuronal Plasticity
Memory Disorders
Glutamate Receptors
N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptors
Cognition
Homeostasis

Keywords

  • leptin hippocampus
  • synaptic plasticity
  • Alzheimer's disease
  • amyloid

Cite this

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title = "Regulation of hippocampal synaptic function by the metabolic hormone, leptin: Implications for health and neurodegenerative disease",
abstract = "The role of the endocrine hormone leptin in controlling energy homeostasis in the hypothalamus are well documented. However the CNS targets for leptin are not restricted to the hypothalamus as a high density of leptin receptors are also expressed in several parts of the brain involved in higher cognitive functions including the hippocampus. Numerous studies have identified that in the hippocampus, leptin has cognitive enhancing actions as exogenous application of this hormone facilitates hippocampal-dependent learning and memory, whereas lack or insensitivity to leptin results in significant memory deficits. Leptin also markedly influences some of the main cellular changes that are involved in learning and memory including NMDA-receptor dependent synaptic plasticity and glutamate receptor trafficking. Like other metabolic hormones, there is a significant decline in neuronal sensitivity to leptin during the ageing process. Indeed, the capacity of leptin to modulate the functioning of hippocampal synapses is substantially reduced in aged compared to adult tissue. Clinical studies have also identified an association between circulating leptin levels and the risk of certain neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). In view of this, targeting leptin and/or its receptor/signaling mechanisms may be an innovative approach for developing therapies to treat AD. In support of this, accumulating evidence indicates that leptin has cognitive enhancing and neuroprotective actions in various models of AD. Here we assess recent evidence that supports an important regulatory role for leptin at hippocampal CA1 synapses, and we discuss how age-related alterations in this hormonal system influences neurodegenerative disease.",
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T1 - Regulation of hippocampal synaptic function by the metabolic hormone, leptin

T2 - Implications for health and neurodegenerative disease

AU - Mcgregor, Gemma

AU - Harvey, Jenni

N1 - This work was supported by a Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) eastbio studentship awarded to GM and a Tenovus grant to JH.

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Y1 - 2018/10/16

N2 - The role of the endocrine hormone leptin in controlling energy homeostasis in the hypothalamus are well documented. However the CNS targets for leptin are not restricted to the hypothalamus as a high density of leptin receptors are also expressed in several parts of the brain involved in higher cognitive functions including the hippocampus. Numerous studies have identified that in the hippocampus, leptin has cognitive enhancing actions as exogenous application of this hormone facilitates hippocampal-dependent learning and memory, whereas lack or insensitivity to leptin results in significant memory deficits. Leptin also markedly influences some of the main cellular changes that are involved in learning and memory including NMDA-receptor dependent synaptic plasticity and glutamate receptor trafficking. Like other metabolic hormones, there is a significant decline in neuronal sensitivity to leptin during the ageing process. Indeed, the capacity of leptin to modulate the functioning of hippocampal synapses is substantially reduced in aged compared to adult tissue. Clinical studies have also identified an association between circulating leptin levels and the risk of certain neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). In view of this, targeting leptin and/or its receptor/signaling mechanisms may be an innovative approach for developing therapies to treat AD. In support of this, accumulating evidence indicates that leptin has cognitive enhancing and neuroprotective actions in various models of AD. Here we assess recent evidence that supports an important regulatory role for leptin at hippocampal CA1 synapses, and we discuss how age-related alterations in this hormonal system influences neurodegenerative disease.

AB - The role of the endocrine hormone leptin in controlling energy homeostasis in the hypothalamus are well documented. However the CNS targets for leptin are not restricted to the hypothalamus as a high density of leptin receptors are also expressed in several parts of the brain involved in higher cognitive functions including the hippocampus. Numerous studies have identified that in the hippocampus, leptin has cognitive enhancing actions as exogenous application of this hormone facilitates hippocampal-dependent learning and memory, whereas lack or insensitivity to leptin results in significant memory deficits. Leptin also markedly influences some of the main cellular changes that are involved in learning and memory including NMDA-receptor dependent synaptic plasticity and glutamate receptor trafficking. Like other metabolic hormones, there is a significant decline in neuronal sensitivity to leptin during the ageing process. Indeed, the capacity of leptin to modulate the functioning of hippocampal synapses is substantially reduced in aged compared to adult tissue. Clinical studies have also identified an association between circulating leptin levels and the risk of certain neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). In view of this, targeting leptin and/or its receptor/signaling mechanisms may be an innovative approach for developing therapies to treat AD. In support of this, accumulating evidence indicates that leptin has cognitive enhancing and neuroprotective actions in various models of AD. Here we assess recent evidence that supports an important regulatory role for leptin at hippocampal CA1 synapses, and we discuss how age-related alterations in this hormonal system influences neurodegenerative disease.

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KW - synaptic plasticity

KW - Alzheimer's disease

KW - amyloid

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M3 - Review article

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JO - Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience

JF - Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience

SN - 1662-5102

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