Recombinant human tyrosine hydroxylase (hTH1) was found to be phosphorylated by mitogen and stress-activated protein kinase 1 (MSK1) at Ser40 and by p38 regulated/activated kinase (PRAK) on Ser19. Phosphorylation by MSK1 induced an increase in Vmax and a decrease in Km for 6-(R)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), while these kinetic parameters were unaffected as a result of phosphorylation by PRAK. Phosphorylation of both Ser40 and Ser19 induced a high-affinity binding of 14-3-3 proteins, but only the interaction of 14-3-3 with Ser19 increased the hTH1 activity. The 14-3-3 proteins also inhibited the rate of dephosphorylation of Ser19 and Ser40 by 82 and 36%, respectively. The phosphorylation of hTH1 on Ser19 caused a threefold increase in the rate of phosphorylation of Ser40. These studies provide new insights into the possible roles of stress-activated protein kinases in the regulation of catecholamine biosynthesis.
- 14-3-3 proteins
- Stress-activated protein kinases
- Tyrosine hydroxylase