Background: Renal squamous cell carcinoma is a rare primary tumor of the kidney that rapidly invades local structures and has a poor prognosis. Presentation is usually nonspecific and is associated with renal stone disease and chronic infection. Immunosuppressed renal transplant recipients are more likely to develop a malignancy than the general population. Squamous cell carcinoma of the kidney in the context of a renal transplant and long-term immunosuppression has not previously been described in the literature.
Case Report: A 46-year-old white man with previous renal stones and recurrent urinary infections underwent a right nephrectomy and subsequent renal transplantation owing to failure of the remaining kidney. Five years posttransplant, an abdominal ultrasound scan was performed owing to recurrent urinary infections and ongoing pyuria. This was reported as normal, but he later developed a discharging sinus in his left flank. A computed tomography (CT) scan revealed a tracking perinephric abscess with an associated cystic lesion of the left kidney. A left nephrectomy was performed and histologic examination suggested an invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis. The patient later required major surgery for chronic infection, and further imaging revealed metastatic disease, resulting in the decision to manage palliatively.
Conclusion: Given the nonspecific nature of the symptoms and the poor prognosis, health care professionals should have a lower threshold for diagnostic imaging in these patients. Abdominal ultrasonography was unhelpful and only a later CT scan revealed the underlying malignancy. This should be expedited if there is a persistent abnormality on urinalysis. Once diagnosed, a change in immunosuppressant regime to include sirolimus should be considered.
|Number of pages||3|
|Early online date||22 Feb 2016|
|Publication status||Published - 2016|
- Renal transplant
- Squamous cell