Reporting stAndards for research in PedIatric Dentistry (RAPID): an expert consensus-based statement

Jayakumar Jayaraman, Vineet Dhar (Lead / Corresponding author), Kevin J. Donly, Ekta Priya, Daniela P. Raggio, Noel K. Childers, Timothy J. Wright, Venkateshbabu Nagendrababu, Mike Clarke, Nigel King, Jan Clarkson, Nicola P. T. Innes

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)
76 Downloads (Pure)


Background: Reporting guidelines for different study designs are currently available to report studies with accuracy and transparency. There is a need to develop supplementary guideline items that are specific to areas within Pediatric Dentistry. This study aims to develop Reporting stAndards for research in PedIatric Dentistry (RAPID) guidelines using a pre-defined expert consensus-based Delphi process.

Methods: The development of the RAPID guidelines was based on the Guidance for Developers of Health Research Reporting Guidelines. Following a comprehensive search of the literature, the Executive Group identified ten themes in Pediatric Dentistry and compiled a draft checklist of items under each theme. The themes were categorized as: General, Oral Medicine, Pathology and Radiology, Children with Special Health Care Needs, Sedation and Hospital Dentistry, Behavior Guidance, Dental Caries, Preventive and Restorative Dentistry, Pulp Therapy, Traumatology, and Interceptive Orthodontics. A RAPID Delphi Group (RDG) was formed comprising of 69 members from 15 countries across six continents. Items were scored using a 9-point rating Likert scale. Items achieving a score of seven and above, marked by at least 70% of RDG members were accepted into the RAPID checklist items. Weighted mean scores were calculated for each item. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05 and one-way ANOVA was used to calculate the difference in the weighted mean scores between the themes.

Results: The final RAPID checklist comprised of 128 items that were finalized and approved by the RDG members in the online consensus meeting. The percentage for high scores (scores 7 to 9) ranged from 69.57 to 100% for individual items. The overall weighted mean score of the final items ranged from 7.51 to 8.28 (out of 9) and the difference was statistically significant between the themes (p < 0.05).

Conclusions: The RAPID statement provides guidance to researchers, authors, reviewers and editors, to ensure that all elements relevant to particular studies are adequately reported.

Original languageEnglish
Article number369
Number of pages14
JournalBMC Oral Health
Publication statusPublished - 23 Jul 2021


  • Pediatric dentistry
  • Children
  • Reporting
  • Guidelines
  • Delphi

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Dentistry


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