Resonant marker design and fabrication techniques for device visualization during interventional magnetic resonance imaging

Mandy Kaiser (Lead / Corresponding author), Markus Detert, Martin A. Rube, Abubakr El-Tahir, Ole Jakob Elle, Andreas Melzer, Bertram Schmidt, Georg H. Rose

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    16 Citations (Scopus)


    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has great potential as an imaging modality for guiding minimally invasive interventions because of its superior soft tissue contrast and the possibility of arbitrary slice positioning while avoiding ionizing radiation and nephrotoxic iodine contrast agents. The major constraints are: limited patient access, the insufficient assortment of compatible instruments and the difficult device visualization compared to X-ray based techniques. For the latter, resonant MRI markers, fabricated by using the wire-winding technique, have been developed. This fabrication technique serves as a functional model but has no clinical use. Thus, the aim of this study is to illustrate a four-phase design process of resonant markers involving microsystems technologies. The planning phase comprises the definition of requirements and the simulation of electromagnetic performance of the MRI markers. The following technologies were considered for the realization phase: aerosol-deposition process, hot embossing technology and thin film technology. The subsequent evaluation phase involves several test methods regarding electrical and mechanical characterization as well as MRI visibility aspects. The degree of fulfillment of the predefined requirements is determined within the analysis phase. Furthermore, an exemplary evaluation of four realized MRI markers was conducted, focusing on the performance within the MRI environment.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)89-103
    Number of pages15
    JournalBiomedical Engineering/ Biomedizinische Technik
    Issue number2
    Early online date2 Dec 2014
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2015


    • device visualization interventional MRI
    • microsystems technologies
    • quality factor
    • wireless resonant markers

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Biomedical Engineering


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